Dysphasia (Specific Language Impairment-SLI)
Dysphasia often begins with infant speech impediments such as lisps or other mispronunciations. Speech therapy is often needed to help these. Difficulties with pronunciation often impair memory for letter sounds and blends for learning to read and spell (phonics), so that many dyslexics have some degree of SLI before they begin to learn to read. These problems are often associated with difficulties with vocabulary and comprehension, hence difficulty with understanding what is being asked for in answering questions in tests and exams. Often this also leads to a tendency to take things too literally and failure to understand jokes, which can cause problems with making friends.